The hottest situation of hazardous chemicals packa

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The current situation of hazardous chemicals packaging in China

at present, the quality of hazardous chemicals packaging in China is still low, and the damage of packaging during transportation is still quite serious. Every year, the direct loss of fire, explosion, corrosion and other accidents caused by the packaging damage of dangerous chemicals is as high as millions of yuan. In recent years, the number of claims for hazardous chemicals exported from foreign trade has also shown an increasing trend. The shortage and contamination of goods are caused by the damage and leakage of packaging containers. The amount of claims caused by such accidents far exceeds the loss of hazardous chemicals themselves

it should be noted that the low quality of packaging is extremely detrimental to production, people's life and the development of foreign trade. At the same time, it should also be noted that with the production and scientific research undertakings as well as the needs of the situation after China's entry into the WTO, the variety, scope of use and the number of foreign trade imports and exports of dangerous chemicals will increase significantly in the future. Therefore, whether from the current or long-term interests, improving the packaging quality of hazardous chemicals and reducing the quality accidents in the storage and transportation of hazardous chemicals are urgent and urgent problems to be solved

ways to improve the packaging quality of dangerous chemicals

there are many reasons for the low packaging quality of dangerous chemicals. Therefore, to improve its packaging quality, we should also start from many aspects

improve understanding of the importance of packaging in terms of ideology

for a long time, commodity packaging has been neglected due to the influence of the planned economic system. Many enterprise leaders do not understand the importance of commodity packaging enough, and are accustomed to unqualified packaging. This ideological contempt leads to insufficient investment in packaging, backward scientific research, and frequent accidents. Calcium carbide explosion accidents that have occurred continuously in foreign trade exports are an example

calcium carbide packaging requires that it be packed in iron drums with good air tightness and sealing. The national standard requires that 99.99% of high-purity nitrogen be filled into the calcium carbide barrels for protection. However, some calcium carbide manufacturers do not pay attention to the quality of packaging and fill industrial nitrogen with purity of 98%. There are also quality problems in the iron bucket for transporting calcium carbide. The body, bottom and cover of the bucket are not tightly occluded. Unsafe factors are hidden in the factory packaging of calcium carbide. As a result, explosion accidents have occurred repeatedly during transshipment in Hong Kong, causing a very bad impact. On the contrary, enterprises that pay attention to packaging quality will have different results. For example, Tianjin chemical plant pays attention to improving the packaging quality, and uses convenient barrels that meet international standards and have good sealing effect to contain dangerous dichlorobenzene, which not only completes the packaging during the transportation of goods, but also increases the selling price by 11%. Therefore, to improve the packaging quality of dangerous chemicals, we must first improve the quality awareness of relevant personnel, so that they realize that the low packaging quality will cause huge losses to the country, At the same time, it will also damage the reputation of the enterprise and seriously affect the sales of its products

facts tell us that in order to change the current problem of packaging of dangerous chemicals, we first need to solve the problem of understanding that enterprises despise packaging. Only when we improve our ideological understanding can we further promote the improvement and improvement of technology

2. Find reasons from the packaging container itself to improve and improve

(1) packaging material: at present, the packaging quality of hazardous chemicals is low, and there are many damage accidents. From the perspective of packaging material, the quality is poor, which can not meet the quality requirements. Especially for wooden cases and cartons, the material problems that need to be strictly tested before use are more prominent. For example, a station sampled a batch of 250 wooden lattice wooden boxes with metal pulp barrels, and more than 20 of them failed to meet the specified quality requirements, accounting for 8% of the total. Due to poor paper, the strength and moisture resistance of corrugated boxes can not meet the specified standards, and the damage is more serious in the humid southern region. Therefore, to improve the packaging quality, we must strictly control the material quality and select qualified raw materials. Correct. Since the breathing bag must be folded and spread evenly when not in use, it is also necessary to pay attention to the consistency between the commodity characteristics and the characteristics of the packaging materials

at present, the commonly used packaging containers for dangerous chemicals are metal barrels, mainly steel sheet welding barrels, toilet iron barrels, plastic barrels, gunny bags and plastic woven bags

there are two kinds of steel sheet welding barrels: big mouth barrels and small mouth barrels. The 53 gallon barrel is suitable for liquid and semi liquid goods. The lid of the big mouth barrel can be opened as a whole, which is suitable for holding powdery and granular goods

the toilet iron bucket is welded from high chromium toilet iron, and the bucket is coated with paint, which has good corrosion and moisture resistance

iron plastic composite barrel is a composite barrel with black iron sheet as the shell and plastic as the lining, which has corrosion resistance and moisture resistance

plastic barrels have the characteristics of light weight and corrosion resistance. Some can be used instead of metal barrels, but they are not suitable for containing gasoline, benzene and chemical liquids that have swelling effect on plastics

gunny bags are mainly made of jute and other raw materials after processing, with good wear resistance, but they are easy to mold after being affected with moisture

plastic woven bags are made of polyethylene and polypropylene stretched into silk and woven. They have the characteristics of light weight, high strength, high toughness, acid and alkali resistance and are not easy to mold

various packaging containers have their own characteristics, and the nature of the goods they contain is also relatively complex, so appropriate packaging must be selected according to the characteristics of the goods. Only when the nature of packaging is compatible with the nature of goods can it play a better protective role and avoid all kinds of dangerous accidents. For example, liquid and semi liquid hazardous chemicals must be packaged with good anti leakage performance and good sealing, such as iron drums; When it is used to hold goods that are hygroscopic and susceptible to moisture, it should be kept dry and have moisture-proof performance, such as using iron plastic composite barrels; Powder and granular goods that are not afraid of extrusion can be shipped in soft packaging, such as gunny bags, plastic woven bags, etc; However, if the goods are corrosive, gunny bags cannot be used. In addition, according to the characteristics of different chemical dangerous goods, such as easy spontaneous combustion, easy corrosion or burning in water and moisture, select appropriate packaging forms. For example, self igniting white phosphorus is transported in iron drums, and enough water layer is added on the white phosphorus to isolate it from the air. For example, metallic sodium must be stored in iron drums and soaked in kerosene. We should prevent malignant accidents caused by unreasonable packaging to ensure the safety of commodity storage and transportation

(2) packaging design and manufacturing process

whether the design and manufacturing process of packaging is reasonable is also very important. For example, although some wooden boxes are made of good materials, due to the improper design of the box without side baffle, the box is scattered or damaged during transportation and stacking, so that the good materials do not play their due role. Some cartons are not designed to match the contents. After being packed, the contents exceed or are insufficient to fill the volume of the box, resulting in the damage of the packed goods due to collision during transportation; In addition, the different characteristics of various hazardous chemicals are not fully considered in the packaging design, which is also one of the reasons for the damage of the packaging. For example, at present, polyethylene or polypropylene are used as anti leakage additives in the concave edges of the joints at both ends of domestic iron packaging barrels, rather than using different additives according to the different products inside. Volvo therefore had leakage when shipping some organic solvents. In short, when designing the packaging container, we should fully consider many factors such as the commodity form, commodity characteristics and liquidity, and try to design a reasonable and applicable packaging as far as possible

the manufacturing process does not meet the quality requirements, and electricity is one of the main reasons for package damage. At present, the main problems of metal containers are that the welding and sealing are not strict during the manufacturing process, and the quality of the internal coating is not up to standard, resulting in the leakage of the contents to pollute the goods. The following is an example of the explosion of calcium carbide barrels in Tianjin Port:

calcium carbide is commonly known as calcium carbide. It is listed as a class I water burning article in the "rules for the transport of dangerous goods" issued by China. After contacting with water or steam, it will produce intense chemical reaction. Every kilogram of calcium carbide can be produced. It often encounters the phenomenon of good and bad operation of the instrument. 300 liters of acetylene gas is generated with 470 kcal of heat. Acetylene gas is very easy to burn, and its explosion limit is 2.5% - 80%. Therefore, if water or steam enters the carbide bucket, acetylene gas will be generated, and the gas in the bucket will expand and explode. One of the reasons for the explosion of calcium carbide barrels exported from Tianjin port is the quality problem of calcium carbide packaging. As 98% of industrial nitrogen is filled, moisture enters. The calcium carbide bucket explosion occurred in June, 1987. The reason is that the seal of the carbide bucket is not tight, and the nitrogen filling cap on the bucket is not matched with the nut, which partially falls off during transportation. In addition, cracks can be found in some barrels intuitively. The curling of barrels does not reach 5 layers as required, and most of the curling has only two layers

to solve the problems in the manufacturing process, we must strictly control every link in the manufacturing process of packaging containers. The unqualified products found shall be handled in time, and no unqualified products shall be allowed to leave the factory, so as to prevent the inferior packaging containers from entering the circulation field. In addition, new technologies and processes can be adopted to solve the hidden dangers that may appear in the processing of backward processes. For example, Tianjin Hangu petrochemical plant barrel making branch introduced a convenient barrel production line. The convenient barrel production line adopts microcomputer processing, has central control and unit control systems, uses fusion welding technology for welds, uses expansion technology for barrel body, and uses liquid injection technology for sealing filler. The barrel body is welded evenly and firmly, with good sealing effect. This kind of convenient barrel is used to contain dichlorobenzene, and there is no damage when it is exported to Australia. Another example is that the containers of Shenyang container chemical branch used to have problems in export packaging, mainly leakage, paint peeling and cover falling. The main reasons for leakage are: firstly, the welding at the crimping is not strict; Second, the quality of sealing materials is poor; Through improvement, the company changed the rolling edge of hill layer to seven layers, and used the Bailu glue produced in Xiamen as the filler, so as to effectively solve the problem of leakage. The cap falling rate of 150 liter necked barrels operated by the company is as high as 20%, which seriously affects the shipment on schedule. After the goods arrive abroad, the goods are leaked in the container due to the problem of falling covers, resulting in the reduction and deterioration. After improving the process, the bolt sealing is changed to bolt fastening, and the problem of cap falling is basically solved. Originally, the steel barrel was painted by hand. Its disadvantages are slow natural drying, poor adhesion and poor finish. After improving the process, electrostatic spraying was adopted to strengthen the adhesion of the paint. Generally, it is not easy to fall off the paint when bumping, and it is not easy to change color after weathering, and the finish is greatly improved. The chromic anhydride that the company went out was a highly toxic product. In the past, toxic gases were often emitted due to the poor sealing performance of the barrel cover. In order to solve this problem, the company learned from the practice of Japanese packaging barrels, added a safety ring on the barrel and adopted the method of mechanical sealing. After using this method, the cover fell off after repeated bump and drop experiments, which met the sealing requirements

with the strong support of relevant competent departments, the packaging equipment of the enterprise has made great progress in design and manufacturing. Most enterprises have adopted new welding methods, and the advanced technology of arc crimping is increasingly adopted by packaging manufacturers. With the continuous adoption of new technologies and methods of manufacturing process, due to the manufacturing process

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